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  1. page Destruction of Punic Carthage edited ... Carthage, having lost both the farms outside Carthage proper and the minerals of Spain, first …
    ...
    Carthage, having lost both the farms outside Carthage proper and the minerals of Spain, first tried to pay the indemnity by raising taxes. Although Hannibal had initiated some rural reforms, these taxes seriously hampered any potential agricultural recovery. When Carthage’s indemnity payment of 199 BCE was refused due to its poor quality, further reforms were called for. In 196 BCE, Hannibal was elected suffete and initiated the necessary reforms, over the oligarchic objections. Hannibal increased profits by promoting the cultivation of olives in Carthage and eliminated much of the waste endemic in corrupt Carthaginian politics. From this point on, the economic recovery of Carthage seems to be steady. By 191 BCE, Carthage even offered to pay the entire 50 year indemnity at once, after the tenth year. This is also the time period when Carthage built their great harbors to handle the increased trade, since her merchantmen had begun reappearing around the Mediterranean Sea (Figure 3). All in all, a great start to a return to prosperity from such a disastrous defeat!
    In the meantime, Rome had many foreign interests after the 2nd Punic War other than a powerless Carthage. First, Rome had to put down an uprising in Gallia Cisalpina by the Boii and Insubres, who resented Roman colonization of the Po River valley. Next, she fought wars against two eastern powers that she felt were threatening Roman interests. King Philip V of Macedon had been reckless enough to ally with Hannibal during the 2nd Punic War. When Rhodes and Pergamum contacted Rome about Philip’s new conquests around the Aegean Sea, Rome declared war. Rome defeated him at Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE, restricting Philip to his homeland. King Antiochus the Great of Syria, utilizing the exile Hannibal’s advice, began to attack allies of Rome in Asia. Rome defeated King Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE, keeping him entirely out of Asia Minor by treaty. Within little more than a decade, Rome had defeated two major powers and forced its will on the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
    ...
    after war.
    This

    This
    same half-century
    ...
    her arrogance.
    The year 151 BCE also marked the last payment of the war indemnity owed by Carthage. Since the terms of the 201 BCE treaty had been fulfilled, Carthage felt they should now be free to act unilaterally. Carthage didn’t realize that Rome felt otherwise; a defeated enemy should remain a defeated enemy, and never be allowed to become a threat again.
    {catob.jpg} Figure 4: Cato the Elder. {CastraCorneliab.jpg} Figure 5: Utica and Castra Cornelia {Map.jpg} Figure 6: Roman camps around Carthage.
    ...
    their territory.
    When

    When
    the Roman
    ...
    the death.
    Although they were surprised that the Carthaginians had finally said “No”, Rome was prepared to back their demands. The consuls, Manius Manlius and Lucius Marcius Censorinus, led their army in two divisions, totaling 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry, to Carthage (Figure 6). Manlius built a camp at the north end of Carthage’s triple wall (Figure 7), and Censorinus built his camp at the south end. The unimaginative Manlius stormed the walls in a straight frontal attack. Censorinus made a joint attack by land and sea at the south corner of the city where the triple wall gave way to a single wall at the edge of Lake Tunis. Both attacks were surprisingly repulsed, not just once, but twice.
    ...
    killing 500.
    After preparing to assault walls they knew would be fiercely defended, Manlius and Censorinus attacked again. Manlius met with no more success storming the triple walls this time than he did the first two times. Censorinus at least changed his tactics, and used two battering rams, one manned by infantrymen, the other by sailors, competing with each other. By the end of the day, two breaches were made, but the Romans were driven back before nightfall. While the Romans went to camp, ready to enter the city in the morning, the Carthaginians did their best to repair the breaches, and even made night sorties to set the battering rams on fire. Although one breach remained open, the Carthaginians gathered just inside and prepared to meet the Romans. At dawn, the Romans recklessly stormed the breach and charged into the city, only to be met with a withering resistance. As they withdrew, they were covered by a cohort led by a young Scipio Aemilianus (Figure 8), the adopted grandson of the great Scipio Africanus.
    [[image:file/view/ScipioAemilianus.jpg align="left" caption="Figure{ScipioAemilianus.jpg} Figure 8: Scipio Aemilianus."]]Aemilianus.
    Now the Romans maintained a loose siege around Carthage, and in Censorinus’ camp they were stricken by disease during the summer. When Censorinus moved his camp south, away from the unhealthy area, he left Manlius alone on the isthmus opposite the triple walls. Censorinus also built a harbor on the edge of the sea, where the Carthaginians were able to cause considerable damage to his fleet with fire boats. After raiding the few remaining allies of Carthage along the coast, Censorinus sailed back to Rome for the consular elections that autumn. Back on the isthmus, Manlius’ camp was attacked one night and only saved from panic by the timely intervention of Scipio Aemilianus once again. From now on, the Roman siege works were raised and Manlius began conducting raids into the interior to prevent provisions from reaching Carthage.
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    Over the winter of 149/148, important developments happened in Rome and in Africa. In Rome, Cato the Censor died but not before praising Scipio Aemilianus’ deeds and calling him Rome’s lone bright star in the war so far. In Africa, the 90 year old Massinissa finally died and named Scipio as his executor. Scipio divided the kingdom of Numidia between Massinissa’s three sons, one of whom, Gulussa, led the formidable Numidian cavalry east to join the Roman army against Carthage. Now Rome would have a cavalry to match the Carthaginians’’ for next year’s consul. But before his arrival, Manlius once more mounted an attack against Hasdrubal at Nepheris, once more failed to defeat the Carthaginians, but did receive the defection of Himilco Phameas, a major Carthaginian general. Scipio was sent back to Rome to escort Phameas.
    ...
    against Rome.
    Back

    Back
    in Rome,
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    When

    When
    Scipio arrived
    ...
    Rome’s strategy.
    The

    The
    only target
    ...
    the city.
    Scipio’s

    Scipio’s
    next action
    ...
    by sea.
    Scipio

    Scipio
    next took
    ...
    her fate.
    As

    As
    winter passed,
    ...
    for plundering.
    As the city was burned, Scipio was seen to weep and wonder aloud if the same fate awaited Rome. Afterwards, the land of Carthage was cursed, the cities that had supported Carthage were destroyed, and those that supported Rome were rewarded. Utica was made the capital of the new Roman province, Africa.
    Image:
    ...
    The CAH treats the Third Punic War as an episode between the end of the Second Punic War. But it does have 20 Pages in Chapter 5; fifteen pages on the buildup, five pages on the actual war.
    The terms of the treaty at the end of the Second Punic War are covered in Bagnall, Nigel, The Punic Wars, St. Martin’s Press, 1990, pp. 297-8; and Caven, Brian, The Punic Wars, St. Martin’s Press, 1980, pp. 254-5; Goldworthy, Adrian, The Punic Wars, Cassell & Co., 2000, pp. 308-9. Carthage’s troubles with Massinissa are covered in Astin, Alan E., Scipio Aemilianus, pp. 49-51. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, pp. 49-51 and Astin, Alan E., Cato the Censor. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1978, pp. 283-6.
    Bagnell,Bagnall, pg. 304;
    Macedonia, Bagwell, pg. 260. Goldworthy, pg. 321.
    Bagnall, pp. 305-6; Caven, pp.263-70.
    (view changes)
    12:54 pm
  2. page Destruction of Punic Carthage edited ... When King Philip died, his son King Perseus tried to reestablish Macedonian control of Greece,…
    ...
    When King Philip died, his son King Perseus tried to reestablish Macedonian control of Greece, but was defeated by Rome at the battle of Pydna in 168 BCE, and Rome divided the kingdom into four independent republics. Rome’s incompetent governors of Hispania drove the Spaniards to revolt in 155 BCE, in fighting that would last for two decades. In 150 BCE, Macedonia revolted under Andriscus for the last time, being turned into a province after its defeat. As can be seen, Rome spent the half-century after the 2nd Punic War involved in war after war.
    This same half-century saw Carthage concentrating on its agricultural production and trade, while keeping a close eye on Massinissa. By claiming he was simply recovering ancestral lands as allowed by Rome in treaty, every decade Massinissa made some inroad on Carthaginian territory with impunity. Whenever Carthage complained to Rome as required by treaty, visiting Roman ambassadors either supported Massinissa or delayed judgment permanently. One of these embassies (155 BCE) contained Cato the Elder (Figure 4) who began urging the final destruction of Carthage as a threat to Rome’s future existence. Although overstated, Cato’s jealousy of Carthage’s prosperity and fear of possible military resurgence was able to stir up Roman memories of Hannibal. He began ending every speech with his famous quote, “Carthago delenda est”. In response, the Senate sent another embassy (152/151) with Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica who returned a decision against Massinissa for the first time in decades. Scipio Nasica also made his famous argument that it was in Rome’s best interest to keep Carthage as a viable rival, to ensure Rome’s greatness and to check her arrogance.
    ...
    threat again.
    {catob.jpg}

    {catob.jpg}
    Figure 4:
    ...
    camps around Carthage.Unfortunately,Carthage.
    Unfortunately,
    the war-party
    When the Roman army landed in Africa, at Castra Cornelia outside Utica (Figure 5), Carthage sent yet another embassy to the consuls and was ordered, first, to turn over all their munitions. Carthage meekly acquiesced and sent 200,000 sets of armor, 2,000 pieces of artillery and tons of ammunition. Next, they were told the final demand: to abandon the site of Carthage itself and found a new city, at least 10 miles inland. Although Rome would level the buildings, at least the temples and cemeteries would not be destroyed and could be visited from their new city. When these terms were taken back to the city, the incredulous Carthaginians refused and began preparations for a war to the death.
    Although they were surprised that the Carthaginians had finally said “No”, Rome was prepared to back their demands. The consuls, Manius Manlius and Lucius Marcius Censorinus, led their army in two divisions, totaling 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry, to Carthage (Figure 6). Manlius built a camp at the north end of Carthage’s triple wall (Figure 7), and Censorinus built his camp at the south end. The unimaginative Manlius stormed the walls in a straight frontal attack. Censorinus made a joint attack by land and sea at the south corner of the city where the triple wall gave way to a single wall at the edge of Lake Tunis. Both attacks were surprisingly repulsed, not just once, but twice.
    ...
    killing 500.
    After

    After
    preparing to
    ...
    Scipio Africanus. {ScipioAemilianus.jpg} Figure
    [[image:file/view/ScipioAemilianus.jpg align="left" caption="Figure
    8: Scipio Aemilianus.Aemilianus."]]
    Now the Romans maintained a loose siege around Carthage, and in Censorinus’ camp they were stricken by disease during the summer. When Censorinus moved his camp south, away from the unhealthy area, he left Manlius alone on the isthmus opposite the triple walls. Censorinus also built a harbor on the edge of the sea, where the Carthaginians were able to cause considerable damage to his fleet with fire boats. After raiding the few remaining allies of Carthage along the coast, Censorinus sailed back to Rome for the consular elections that autumn. Back on the isthmus, Manlius’ camp was attacked one night and only saved from panic by the timely intervention of Scipio Aemilianus once again. From now on, the Roman siege works were raised and Manlius began conducting raids into the interior to prevent provisions from reaching Carthage.
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    Over the winter of 149/148, important developments happened in Rome and in Africa. In Rome, Cato the Censor died but not before praising Scipio Aemilianus’ deeds and calling him Rome’s lone bright star in the war so far. In Africa, the 90 year old Massinissa finally died and named Scipio as his executor. Scipio divided the kingdom of Numidia between Massinissa’s three sons, one of whom, Gulussa, led the formidable Numidian cavalry east to join the Roman army against Carthage. Now Rome would have a cavalry to match the Carthaginians’’ for next year’s consul. But before his arrival, Manlius once more mounted an attack against Hasdrubal at Nepheris, once more failed to defeat the Carthaginians, but did receive the defection of Himilco Phameas, a major Carthaginian general. Scipio was sent back to Rome to escort Phameas.
    ...
    against Rome.
    Back

    Back
    in Rome,
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    When

    When
    Scipio arrived
    ...
    Rome’s strategy.
    The

    The
    only target
    ...
    the city.
    Scipio’s

    Scipio’s
    next action
    ...
    by sea.
    Scipio

    Scipio
    next took
    ...
    her fate.
    As

    As
    winter passed,
    ...
    for plundering.
    As the city was burned, Scipio was seen to weep and wonder aloud if the same fate awaited Rome. Afterwards, the land of Carthage was cursed, the cities that had supported Carthage were destroyed, and those that supported Rome were rewarded. Utica was made the capital of the new Roman province, Africa.
    Image:
    (view changes)
    12:47 pm
  3. page Destruction of Punic Carthage edited ... This same half-century saw Carthage concentrating on its agricultural production and trade, wh…
    ...
    This same half-century saw Carthage concentrating on its agricultural production and trade, while keeping a close eye on Massinissa. By claiming he was simply recovering ancestral lands as allowed by Rome in treaty, every decade Massinissa made some inroad on Carthaginian territory with impunity. Whenever Carthage complained to Rome as required by treaty, visiting Roman ambassadors either supported Massinissa or delayed judgment permanently. One of these embassies (155 BCE) contained Cato the Elder (Figure 4) who began urging the final destruction of Carthage as a threat to Rome’s future existence. Although overstated, Cato’s jealousy of Carthage’s prosperity and fear of possible military resurgence was able to stir up Roman memories of Hannibal. He began ending every speech with his famous quote, “Carthago delenda est”. In response, the Senate sent another embassy (152/151) with Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica who returned a decision against Massinissa for the first time in decades. Scipio Nasica also made his famous argument that it was in Rome’s best interest to keep Carthage as a viable rival, to ensure Rome’s greatness and to check her arrogance.
    The year 151 BCE also marked the last payment of the war indemnity owed by Carthage. Since the terms of the 201 BCE treaty had been fulfilled, Carthage felt they should now be free to act unilaterally. Carthage didn’t realize that Rome felt otherwise; a defeated enemy should remain a defeated enemy, and never be allowed to become a threat again.
    Unfortunately,{catob.jpg} Figure 4: Cato the Elder. {CastraCorneliab.jpg} Figure 5: Utica and Castra Cornelia {Map.jpg} Figure 6: Roman camps around Carthage.Unfortunately, the war-party
    When the Roman army landed in Africa, at Castra Cornelia outside Utica (Figure 5), Carthage sent yet another embassy to the consuls and was ordered, first, to turn over all their munitions. Carthage meekly acquiesced and sent 200,000 sets of armor, 2,000 pieces of artillery and tons of ammunition. Next, they were told the final demand: to abandon the site of Carthage itself and found a new city, at least 10 miles inland. Although Rome would level the buildings, at least the temples and cemeteries would not be destroyed and could be visited from their new city. When these terms were taken back to the city, the incredulous Carthaginians refused and began preparations for a war to the death.
    ...
    cavalry, to Carthage.Carthage (Figure 6). Manlius built
    ...
    Carthage’s triple wall,wall (Figure 7), and Censorinus
    ...
    but twice.
    The

    {WallsCross-section.jpg} Figure 7: Cross-section of the triple walls of Carthage.The
    Carthaginians, incensed
    ...
    killing 500.
    After

    After
    preparing to
    ...
    young Scipio Aemilianus,Aemilianus (Figure 8), the adopted
    ...
    Scipio Africanus. {ScipioAemilianus.jpg} Figure 8: Scipio Aemilianus.
    Now the Romans maintained a loose siege around Carthage, and in Censorinus’ camp they were stricken by disease during the summer. When Censorinus moved his camp south, away from the unhealthy area, he left Manlius alone on the isthmus opposite the triple walls. Censorinus also built a harbor on the edge of the sea, where the Carthaginians were able to cause considerable damage to his fleet with fire boats. After raiding the few remaining allies of Carthage along the coast, Censorinus sailed back to Rome for the consular elections that autumn. Back on the isthmus, Manlius’ camp was attacked one night and only saved from panic by the timely intervention of Scipio Aemilianus once again. From now on, the Roman siege works were raised and Manlius began conducting raids into the interior to prevent provisions from reaching Carthage.
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    Over the winter of 149/148, important developments happened in Rome and in Africa. In Rome, Cato the Censor died but not before praising Scipio Aemilianus’ deeds and calling him Rome’s lone bright star in the war so far. In Africa, the 90 year old Massinissa finally died and named Scipio as his executor. Scipio divided the kingdom of Numidia between Massinissa’s three sons, one of whom, Gulussa, led the formidable Numidian cavalry east to join the Roman army against Carthage. Now Rome would have a cavalry to match the Carthaginians’’ for next year’s consul. But before his arrival, Manlius once more mounted an attack against Hasdrubal at Nepheris, once more failed to defeat the Carthaginians, but did receive the defection of Himilco Phameas, a major Carthaginian general. Scipio was sent back to Rome to escort Phameas.
    ...
    against Rome.
    Back

    Back
    in Rome,
    ...
    Castra Cornelia.
    When

    When
    Scipio arrived
    ...
    Rome’s strategy.
    The

    The
    only target
    ...
    the city.
    Scipio’s

    Scipio’s
    next action
    ...
    by sea.
    Scipio

    Scipio
    next took
    ...
    her fate.
    As

    As
    winter passed,
    ...
    for plundering.
    As the city was burned, Scipio was seen to weep and wonder aloud if the same fate awaited Rome. Afterwards, the land of Carthage was cursed, the cities that had supported Carthage were destroyed, and those that supported Rome were rewarded. Utica was made the capital of the new Roman province, Africa.
    Image:
    (view changes)
    12:42 pm
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  5. 12:37 pm
  6. file catob.jpg uploaded
    12:34 pm
  7. file Map.jpg uploaded
    12:32 pm
  8. 12:30 pm
  9. 12:20 pm

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